Within Arizona’s Tucson Basin is The Saguaro National Park. This park provides the ideal conditions for sustaining dense stands of the famous saguaro cactus.
**The most important factors for growth are water and temperature. If the elevation is too high, the cold weather and frost can kill the saguaro. Although the Sonoran Desert experiences both winter and summer rains, studies show that the Saguaro cactus obtains most of its moisture during the summer monsoon season.
There are dozens of varieties of cacti; short, tall, stout, delicate but none quite as magnificent as the Giant Saguaro cactus.
Quick Saguaro Facts:
Saguaros have one deep tap-root but most of this cactus’ roots are 4-6 inches deep and span out as far as the desert plant is tall.
The saguaro is the largest cactus in the US.
After the saguaro dies its woody ribs can be used to build roofs, fences, and parts of furniture.
The Giant Saguaro can live to be 200 years old.
In the Sonoran desert the saguaro cactushas a boundless variety of towering armed shapes.
Water makes up 75 to 95 percent of the saguaro cactus’ weight. During periods of drought the pleats of the saguaro cactus contract. During Arizona rains the saguaro expands as it soaks up moisture.
Saguaros, like many desert cacti, grow excruciatingly slow. Arizona cactus experts estimate that a forty-foot tall saguaro is about 150 years old. Arm buds begin to appear when the saguaro is 75 years old.
Many saguaros now standing in cactus forests germinated in the mid-1800s !!
To survive their early years, saguaro seedlings must be sheltered from the elements, whether it be under the canopy of other plants or in the crevices of rocky outcrops. Saguaro seeds can be deposited in droppings of birds roosting on branches of shrubs and trees.
Lightning, powerful winds, harsh winter freezes and the rotting of dead tissue kill saguaros. Their woody ribs stay on the desert floor until they are consumed by termites or decay and return to the soil.
This cactus species is not currently listed as threatened or endangered. Arizona has strict regulations about the harvesting, collection or destruction of the saguaro cactus.
You can find the majestic giant cactus in southern Arizona and western Sonora, Mexica.
Before entering Colossal Cave it was essential to educate ourselves and obtain some “cave basics”. The facts and information we learned about limestone cavesmade our trip profoundly interesting!
Colossal Cave is an archaic KARST CAVE (meaning erosion has produced fissures, sinkholes, caverns and underground streams).
Karst caves have 3 categories: limestone, gypsum and quartzite.
Colossal Cave is limestone and considered dormant, “dry”. A dry cave is without drips of water, streams or pools. How was the cave formed? Here is a short, simple answer:
Precipitation mixes with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and decaying organic material in the soil.
When Carbon dioxide is dissolved in water it forms carbonic acid. The carbonic acid begins to form holes in rocks, seeps into crevices and dissolves the rocks, especially limestone; but very slowly. (Thousands of years)
rock crevices and joints.
Cavities form and further sculpting can occur from water and chemical weathering.
After passing through limestone, the acid water contains a dis-solvable calcium carbonate. As this solution de-gases through exposure to air by way of splashing, dripping or flowing, it loses carbon dioxide and deposits a solid mineral called calcite.
Calcite is the main mineral component in CAVE FORMATIONS, (speleothems).
The SPELEOTHEMS in Colossal Cave no longer grow. This cave formed by water depositing limestone that has NOW disappeared. Close by, in the same mountain park, are Arkenstone and La Tetera Caves with active growing formations.
The most abundant mineral in limestone is calcite (calcium carbonate). The majority of limestone formed on ANCIENT ocean floors.
Calcite is a main component used by echinoderms, like sea urchins, starfish, and sand dollars to make their spines and skeletons. Calcium carbonate (calcite), is found in the shells of marine organisms and truly is one of the MOST abundant minerals on earth!
In the marine environment, if the conditions are right, calcite is stable enough that it can cement together sediments and overtime make limestone.
On occasion another element may be present while calcite is being formed (ex: magnesium) and take the place of a calcium atom.
A less stable aragonite is a polymorph of calcite. They are both calcium carbonate but have different crystal shapes and symmetries. The calcium, oxygen and carbon atoms in aragonite bond together differently creating a unique crystal structure.
Ok this is plenty of background information so now journey with us to Colossal Cave Mountain Park!
The elevation of Colossal Cave Mountain Park is about 3,500 feet. The temperature of the cave averages 70 degrees Fahrenheit. No extra clothing is needed but feel free to carry water or a camera.
Frank Schmidt was monumental in the improvements and preservation of Colossal Cave by handing over his leases to the State of Arizona. You can find information and historical photographs at La Posta Quemada Ranch Museum.
In 1879, Solomon Lick, the owner of the nearby hotel, was searching for stray cattle and discovered the entrance to this cave.
Thousands of years ago Colossal Cave was used by Hohokam, Sobaipure and Apache Indians. Travel down the road to the ranch museum for a fascinating display.
Most crystals are found in areas, like caves, because they take thousands of years to grow. The growth continues until the saturation is stopped or the cave dries out. Most crystals in a cave are calcite or aragonite.
Your tour guide will tell the story of the bandits who hid out in Colossal Cave. These outlaws even played cards in the Colossal Cave Living Room. Legend has it that the gold from the train robbers is still inside the cave!
Stay with the tour group. Our guide really wasn’t kidding when she said the group might go left and you’ll go right and be lost for hours in Colossal Cave.
Tectonic activity is noticeable. Your guide will point out a fault in the earth’s crust.
Cave’s formations, speleothems, are created by the same water that dissolved the calcite in the limestone —- then deposited the calcite in other areas of the cave.
Stalactites – “c” for ceiling – hang from the top of caves like icicles
Stalagmites – “g” for ground – emerge from the ground like a traffic cone
Because Colossal Cave is DRY; the appearance of these speleothems is different than living caves.
Layers of calcite build up into fluted curtains.
Layers of calcite build up into fluted curtains.
In the 1930’s, a Civilian Conservation Corps designated by President Roosevelt worked tirelessly building the retaining wall outside and improving the inside of Colossal Cave.
The CCC, Civilian Conservation Corps, constructed the stairs, bridges and handrails.
While visiting this cave do adventure down the road to La Posta Quemada Ranch.
Colossal Cave and the historic La Posta Quemada Ranch are listed on the National Historic Register. When you visit be sure to enjoy a Desert Spoon Burger!
Apple Annie’sis a “you pick” orchard in Willcox, Arizona. It is about 1 1/2 hours from Tucson through the exhilarating countryside. A must see for travelers or anyone looking for a gladdening family activity. The farm is well marked and easy to find.
This WILLCOX ORCHARD was started in the 1980’s by a husband, wife and their 2 young children. They humbly began with only tasty apples and their famous apple pie.
Nowadays you can pick juicy peaches, Asian pears, bell peppers, corn, etc… Apple Annie’s is a farmers’ market dream!
The start of the Fall season is complete with PUMPKINS of all sizes, shapes and colors that are available for picking at Apple Annie’s HUGE pumpkin patch.
One of the best parts of Apple Annie’sOrchard is they sell “cider donuts” and your tummy will thank you! If you are adventurous, try a taste of the zesty jalapeno honey mustard, horseradish pickles and other oddly paired condiments.
For anyone traveling to Phoenix or Tucson, AZ the drive to Apple Annie’s Orchard is a great way to spend a relaxing, memorable day in the country. Remember to bring your camera and keep in mind fall days on the farm can be cold in Willcox.
Before planning your trip to Willcox, you can call Annie’s Crop Hotline at 520-384-2084to hear a list of what the farm is currently harvesting.
Children can choose a wheelbarrow or bucket and pick their own vegetables while learning about farming.
For extra thrills make a reservation at the CORN MAZE. Apple Annie’s added 3 levels of difficulty waiting to gobble you up! Halfway through the maze is a high bridge with a great view of the farm; but, it will not give away the solution.
Rest your feet by relaxing on a tractor pulled hay ride in “Farmer John’s truck”. God bless you Apple Annie’s for all your hard work and dedication to the community. Oh and of course the YUMMY home made foods!
“When we planted the first apple trees we asked God for His blessing and guidance in this new venture, but we never envisioned the plans that He had for us! We planned for a commercially harvested crop, but His plans were for us to share our orchard, the farm experience, and the lifestyle that we love, with thousands of families from around the state. We consider it a real privilege to be able to offer an old-fashioned farm experience to today’s busy families!” ~ John and Annie Holcomb
While traveling Arizona we stopped at Saguaro National Park, in Tucson. The park is located in the Sonoran Desert.
The giant cacti, called Saguaros, are protected and preserved within the park.
After a single rainfall, Saguaros can soak up to 200 gallons of water through their huge network of roots that lay just 4-6 inches below the desert surface. That is enough water to last this giant cactus an entire year!
A saguaro expands like an accordion when it absorbs water which can increase its weight by up to a ton.
In 1931, The Saguaro’s Blossom became the Arizona State Flower.
The Saguaro Cactus blooms April through June. Its flowers are creamy white and numerous. Up to a hundred flowers can bloom on one Saguaro Cactus!
The saguaro blossom opens after sunset and by the next afternoon the flower is wilted. The white cactus flower repeats itself night after night. During the few hours the saguaro flower is open birds, bats, and honeybees pollinate them.
Later in the summer, the cactus flowers that were pollinated will become red-fleshed saguaro fruits that are enjoyed by the local bird population. The saguaro cactus is also known as the pitahaya, sahuara and giant cactus.
The Saguaro often begins life with a nurse tree or shrub which can provide shade and moisture for the germination of life. This Saguaro grows slowly — only about an inch a year — eventually becoming very tall; reaching heights of 50 feet. The largest saguaro cacti, with more than 5 arms, are approximately 200 years old.
Our Arizona travels brought us not only to a gentle bird refuge; but the historical Fort Lowell Park in Tucson. This wildlife oasis streaming with ducks, cormorants, turtles and dragonflies was an United States Army post from 1873 till 1891.
The most prominent building at Fort Lowell was the hospital, the adobe remnants still stand under a protective structure.
Ft. Lowell lay in ruins for numerous years. The City of Tucson eventually converted the bulk of the former post into Old Fort Lowell Park, which features ball fields, tennis and racquetball courts, a large public swimming pool, and the Fort Lowell Museum dedicated to its days as an active military installation.
**This is a superb choice if you are looking for Tucson activities.
A lane lined with cottonwood trees, aptly named Cottonwood Lane, glorified the area in front of the officer’s houses.
Following World War II, the Fort Lowell area grew into a small village which the predominantly Mexican local residents called El Fuerte.
The Fort Lowell Museum is located in the reconstructed Commanding Officer’s quarters.
Stroll from the remains of the Ft Lowell Hospital towards the wildlife pond to enjoy crestedducks with the latest updos.
Catch a glimpse as a pigeon tries to remember the secret code to get passed the duck security.
Dedicated community members adopted Fort Lowell Park to keep it clean and build a protected area for birds.
During our visit we spoke with some of the impressive volunteers with “Friends of FortLowell Park” as they were planting trees and tidying up the nesting area.
A regal Neotropic Cormorant bird was standing by to make sure we didn’t decide to jump in and go swimming.
Many species of cormorants make a characteristic half-jump as they dive and under water cormorants propel themselves with their feet.
Thanks to the collaboration of The Friends of Fort Lowell Park and Tucson Parks and Recreation for giving residents and guests a place to enjoy outdooractivities and wildlife in the Sonoran Desert.
Local historians have found evidence that Fort Lowell Park sits on a site endowed with a continuous supply of underground water and has been occupied by humans since ancient times.
The Saguaro cactus will produce white flowers from April to June. This beautiful desert show only occurs 2 months out of the year.
This breath-taking Saguaro Cactus Blossom was designated Arizona’s State Flower in 1931.
The Saguaro flowers are velvety white, and emit a sweet nectar that attracts bats. During the night the flowers are pollinated by the Mexican long-tongued bat and the lesser long-nosed bat.
During the daytime the flowers are pollinated by bees and birds.
The Saguaro Cactus (pronounced “sah-wah-roh”), is an icon of the American west.
Arizona’s Saguaro National Park provides the ideal conditions for sustaining dense stands of the famous saguaro cactus, Carnegiea gigantea.
Saguaro blossoms are usually found near the tops of the stems and arms of the giant cactus.
There can be close to a hundred of these creamy white flowers on ONE Saguaro!
Ever wonder what the Saguaro Cactus Flowers smell like? The smell is very strong and I’d have to say these cactus blossoms smell like overripe melons!
We visit Saguaro Park many times throughout the year; but I have to say April through June is some of our favorite months. If we get to the park in the early mornings we are sure to see the Saguaro Cactus with their white flowers open.
One of the great MASTERS of desert survival is The Giant Saguaro Cactus. Every aspect of this cactus plant is specifically designed to thrive in the harsh Sonoran Desert.
At 35 years of age the Saguaro Cactus will start to produce flowers.
The saguaro flower opens after sunset and by next early afternoon the blossom is wilted.
The whitecactus flower repeats itself night after night. They have less than 24 hours to attract an animal to be pollinated.
A Saguaro can only be fertilized from a different cactus – cross pollination.
At the top of the Saguaro flower tube is a dense group of yellow stamens. The Saguaro Cactus has more stamen on its flower than any other desert cactus. Nectar accumulates at the bottom that attracts insects, bats, and birds.
The Saguaroflowers do not bloom all at the same time. Only a few flowers bloom each night waiting to be pollinated and then wilt by early afternoon.
The cactus flowers that were pollinated will become red-fleshed saguaro fruits later in the summer.
The animals, such as bats, that eat the red fruit help spread the Saguaro cactus seeds across the desert.
Each cactus fruit can contain up to 2000 small black seeds. Saguaro fruit is an excellent source of food and moisture for many desert animals.
Arizona has strict regulations about the harvesting, collection or destruction of The Arizona Saguaro Cactus. It is illegal to harm a Saguaro in Arizona.